32-Ge- 76

 32-Ge- 76 BNL,JAERI  EVAL-AUG04 Iwamoto,Herman,Mughabghab+       
                      DIST-MAY10                       20090805   
----JENDL-4.0         MATERIAL 3243                               
-----INCIDENT NEUTRON DATA                                        
------ENDF-6 FORMAT                                               
09-08  The original data were taken from ENDF/B-VII.0.            
       (n,p) and (n,a) were recalculated from partial cross       
       The total cross section was recalculated from partial      
       cross sections.                                            
       Compiled by K. Shibata (jaea).                             
 ENDF/B-VII       Evaluation, August 2004, O. Iwamoto(BNL,JAERI), 
                  M. Herman(BNL), S.F. Mughabghab (BNL),          
                  P. Oblozinsky(BNL) and A.Trkov(IAEA)            
 This evaluation is combined result of 2 evaluations.             
 a) 2004 evaluation in the thermal, resolved resonance and        
    unresolved resonance regions by Mughabghab. The               
    URR upper energy range is 570.4 keV, given as neutron         
    scattering threshold to the 1-st excited level of Ge-76       
    (562.93 keV).                                                 
 b) 2004 evaluation in the fast energy region by Iwamoto,         
    Herman, Oblozinsky and Trkov                                  
 Merging of these 2 evaluations was performed as follows:         
 - Capture cross sections were adopted from evaluation a) up to   
   the URR upper energy, from evaluation b) at higher energies.   
 - Total cross sections were adopted from evaluation a) up to     
   the URR upper energy, from evaluation b) at higher energies.   
 RESONANCE ENERGY REGION,   S.F. Mughabghab (BNL)                 
                            and O. Iwamoto(BNL,JAERI)             
 MF= 2  RESONANCE PARAMETERS                                      
  RESOLVED RESONANCES REGION (1e-5 eV - 30 keV)                   
  Resonance parameters were from ref. [Ma68] applying multilevel  
  Breit-Wigner formalism.                                         
  Bound level were introduce to describe the recommended thermal  
  capture and scattering cross sections [Mu05].                   
  Resonance energies and widths were modified to reproduce        
  measured total cross section of natural Ge [Ha80].              
  Calculated 2200 m/s cross sections and resonance integral       
                 Cross Section (b)     Res. Integral (b)          
     Capture        0.15                  1.33                    
     Elastic        8.36                                          
  UNRESOLVED RESONANCE REGION (30 keV - 570.4 keV)                
  Average resonance parameters were obtained from the resolved    
  energy region as well as systematics [Mu05]. They were adjusted 
  to fit the capture given in the fast enargy region              
   Average parameters:                                            
                S (10**4)      (eV)*    (meV)              
    s-wave       1.5                       100                    
    p-wave       2.0                       120                    
    d-wave       1.0                       100                    
   * Level spacing at the neutron separation energy of target+n   
   Scattering radius was adjust to fit total cross section in the 
   fast region                                                    
 [Ma68] Maletskii et al., Soviet Atomic Energy, 24, 207 (1968)    
 [Mu05] S.F. Mughabghab, "Atlas of Neutron Resonances",           
        to be published 2005                                      
 [Ha80] J.A. Harvey, M. Hockaday, EXFOR 13770.004                 
 FAST ENERGY REGION,  O. Iwamoto(BNL,JAERI), M. Herman(BNL),      
                      P. Oblozinsky(BNL) and A.Trkov(IAEA)        
 This is entirely new evaluation for Ge-76 in the region up to    
 20 MeV.                                                          
 EVALUATION PROCEDURES                                            
 Adopted procedures are based on careful theoretical analysis     
 utilizing available experimental data, including optical model   
 parameter search and nuclear reaction model calculations.        
 OM parameter search was performed to reporduce measured total    
cross section for natural Ge with the code CCOM by O. Iwamoto.    
 Nuclear reaction model calculations were performed with the      
 code EMPIRE-II by M. Herman [He01, He02]. This is modularized    
 statistical model code that integrates into a single system a    
 number of important modules and features:                        
 - Spherical OM (code SCAT2 by O. Bersillone), and deformed OM    
   including coupled-channels model (code ECIS03 by J. Raynal).   
 - Hauser-Feshbach statistical model including HRTW width         
   fluctuation correction.                                        
 - Qauntum-mechanical MSD TUL model (codes ORION & TRISTAN by     
   H.Lenske), and MSC NVWY model.                                 
 - Exciton model (code DEGAS by E. Betak). This code represents   
   good approximation to DSD capture model.                       
 - Iwamoto-Harada cluster emission model (code PCROSS).           
 - Complete gamma-ray cascade after emission of each particle,    
   including realistic treatment of discrete transitions.         
 - Access to OM segment of the RIPL-2 library [Ri03].             
 - Built-in input parameter files, such as masses, level density, 
   discrete levels, OM parameters and gamma strength functions.   
 - ENDF-6 formatting (utility code EMPEND by A. Trkov), coupled   
   to grahpical presentation (utility code ZVView by V.Zerkin).   
 Optical model                                                    
 - SCAT2 code used for spherical OM parameterization.             
 - For neutrons OM by Wilmore-Hodgson was modified to reproduce   
   total cross section for natural Ge.                            
 - For protons, OM by Koning-Delaroche (RIPL-2:OMP-2405)          
 - For alpha particles, OM by V.Avrigeanu et al.(RIPL-2:OMP-9600) 
 Level densities and discrete levels                              
 - Gilbert-Cameron level densities were used with energy dependent
   a-parameter proposed by Ignatyk.                               
   The asymptoticvalue of the a-parameter is calculated by the    
   systematics of Iljinov et al.                                  
 - Discrete levels were taken from RIPL-2 level file that is      
   based on the 1998 version of the ENSDF database.               
 Other parameters and tuning                                      
 - ECIS03 with DWBA option was used to account for direct         
   contribution to low lying 2+ and 3- discrete levels in (n,n'). 
   Deformation parameters were taken from work of (p,p') analysis 
 - Preequilibrium components were calculated using the following  
   options: Multistep direct and multistep compound models with   
   default parameters for neutron channel, exciton model with     
   angular momentum coupling (DEGAS) for proton and gamma         
   channels, cluster emissin model by Iwamoto and Harada (PCROSS) 
   for alpha channel                                              
 - Gamma-ray strength function of modified Lorentzian version 1   
   (MLO1) by Plujko in RIPL-2 was used.                           
 MF=3 Neutron cross sections                                      
 - EMPIRE calculations were adopted (statistical model, including 
   multistep/preequilibrium decay and direct processes).          
   MT=1 Total                                                     
   - Spherical optical model was adopted.                         
   MT=2 Elastic scattering                                        
   - Calculated as (total - sum of partial cross sections).       
   MT=4, 51-91 Inelastic scattering                               
   - EMPIRE calculations were adopted (statistical model with     
     multistep direct & multistep compound component, and DWBA    
     component for low-lying levels).                             
   MT=102 Capture                                                 
   - EMPIRE calculations were adopted (statistical model with     
     exciton preequilibrium component as approximation to         
     direct-semidirect capture with fast neutrons).               
   MT=16   (n,2n)   taken from EMPIRE calculations                
   MT=17   (n,3n)   taken from EMPIRE calculations                
   MT=22   (n,n'a)  taken from EMPIRE calculations                
   MT=24   (n,2n'a) taken from EMPIRE calculations                
   MT=28   (n,n'p)  taken from EMPIRE calculations                
   MT=45   (n,n'pa) taken from EMPIRE calculations                
    600-649 (n,p)   taken from EMPIRE calculations                
    800-849 (n,a)   taken from EMPIRE calculations                
   MT=112  (n,pa)   taken from EMPIRE calculations                
 MF=4 Angular distributions of secondary neutrons                 
 - EMPIRE calculations (including SCAT2 results for elastic       
   scattering) were adopted.                                      
 MF=6 Energy-angle distributions of reaction products             
 - EMPIRE calculations were adopted.                              
 MF=12 Transition probablility arrays for photon production       
 - RIPL-2 level data                                              
 MF=14 Photon angular distributions                               
 - Isotropic distributions were assumed.                          
 [He01] M. Herman "EMPIRE-II Statistical Model Code for Nuclear   
    Reaction Calculations", in Nuclear Reaction Data and Nuclear  
    Reactors, eds. N.Paver, M. Herman and A.Gandini, ICTP         
    Lecture Notes 5 (ICTP Trieste, 2001) pp.137-230.              
 [He02] M.Herman, R.Capote, P.Oblozinsky, A.Trkov and V.Zerkin,   
    "Recent Development and Validation of the Nuclear Reaction    
    Code EMPIRE", in Proc. Inter. Conf. on Nuclear Data for       
    Science and Technology, October 7-12, 2001, Tsukuba, Japan,   
    to be published in J.Nucl.Sci.Tech. (2002).                   
 [Ke92] M.A.Kennedy, P.D.Cottle, K.W.Kemper, Phys. Rev. C46 1811  
 [Ri03] "RIPL-2: Reference Input Parameter Library",              
    to be published, see also "http://www-nds.iaea.org/RIPL-2/".